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银河@生存主义唱诗班

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与蓟县火灾对比: 911疏散逃生研究(Evacutaion After 911 Attack)  

2012-02-20 20:58:27|  分类: 应急疏散(Bugout) |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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与蓟县火灾对比: 911疏散逃生研究(Evacutaion After 911 Attack) - 银河 - 银河@生存主义唱诗班
 
官方消息10人死亡, 16人受伤.
 
911事件的疏散逃生研究 - 银河 - 银河@生存主义唱诗班
(NYPD在911袭击后征用曼哈顿一家汉堡店做临时前线指挥部)

本博未特殊说明的文字全部为原创,朋友转载请注明出处。鄙视偷偷摸摸玩ctrl+c+v的小玩闹。

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5335a3.htm

911事件中, WTC有2600多人遇难, 但也有多达13000~15000人在起火后的100分钟内逃离大楼.

18个月后,研究机构找来其中的56个志愿者,分析他们逃生的经过, 这些研究对于城市高层住宅疏散无疑大有帮助。但最近有个不知所以的2012网站把我若干博文和图片打上她家logo抛出,这些沽名钓誉的鸡毛,好恶心——,这次的研究报告只好不详细展开,只做简单分享

这些人总结了4个关键因素: 
1有足够的体力和毅力跑楼梯;
2有先前在WTC疏散的经历;
3敢于丢下手头工作和主管领导逃命;
4信息:意识到事态的性质和严重性,多数人看到了飞机撞大楼

数据还显示了一些错误的决策:
1在疏散前一刻还在忙着关电脑,收纳个人物品,打电话
2纠结如何疏散,是走楼梯还是坐电梯
3体力不好或者鞋子不合适的人,逃生比较困难(比如高跟鞋和人字拖)

组织因素:

1事先的演练影响成败

2错误的信息和广播坏事,在WTC1杯撞后不久,WTC2的广播说请大家保持冷静,返回各自的工位云云,详见参考资料


建筑的因素:
1内墙脱落,堵塞了逃生通道
2安全通道内的烟气迫使一些人无法下行,甚至只能折返等待

3缺乏后备的通信广播系统, 使得疏散中的人们无法得知事态的发展情况. 实际上消防员的无线电工作情况都不很理想,导致数百名消防员未能及时撤出.


其他一些细节:

北塔: 电梯崩坏, 但疏散时间够长, 因而人员几乎撤空 仅顶层被火隔离的1000余人因无法逃离而遇难 很多跳楼, 顶楼直升机未能救出任何人.
南塔: 火点以上30层只有少数人员通过仅存的消防通道逃生。直升机同样未能开展救援
Morgan Stanley 的保安队长成功疏散了大部分员工(2600多人/2700员工)
双子塔正门被封锁, 因有楼顶落物,以及坠落的受困者, 疏散者需走其他通道
业余无线电立大功

(原文:The evacuation of the North Tower proceeded efficiently from the time it was hit, via the three stairways. The elevators were all knocked out. The 102 minutes between the impact and collapse allowed the vast majority of its occupants below the crash zone to escape to safety.

No one on the 91st floor or above is believed to have survived. The New York Times estimated that 1,344 of the people in this zone perished. It is not clear how many remained alive until the collapse, but many parts of the upper floors filled wich toxic smoke long before. In many cases people broke windows for fresh air. In one of the most horrifying spectacles of the attack, at least 37 and perhaps twice that number of people jumped to their deaths, apparently to escape agonizing deaths from smoke inhalation. 1

The light northerly wind kept the north corner of the roof clear of smoke, and helicopter rescue should have been possible. However the Port Authority had all the doors to the roof of the tower locked shut, despite the fact that helicopter pilots rescued 28 people from the tower's roof during the 1993 bombing. 2

At 10:07 a police helicopter radioed a warning for firefighters to evacuate the North Tower because the South Tower had just collapsed. Unfortunately most of the firefighters' radios did not work inside the towers, and few heard that or other orders to evacuate. 121 FDNY firefighters were killed when the North Tower collapsed. 3

When the jet hit the South Tower, it cut off several routes of evacuating the 30 floors above the impact zone. It did leave at least one of the stairwells passable, and the New York Times found at least 18 people who escaped through that stairwell. Most people above the crash zone were not aware of the escape route, and at least 200 climbed toward the roof in hopes of being rescued there, only to find the doors to the roof locked. No one had told them that roof top rescue, which had been used in the 1993 bombing, was no longer an option. 3



most notably, Rick Rescorla, Morgan Stanley Security Director, evacuated 2687 of the 2700 Morgan Stanley employees in the building


Amateur radio played a role in the rescue and clean-up efforts on 9/11/01, and the weeks following. Amateur radio operators established communications, maintained emergency networks, and formed bucket brigades with hundreds of other volunteer personnel. Approximately 500 amateur radio operators volunteered their services during the disaster and recovery.[16][17]

The New Jersey Legislature honored the role of Amateur Radio operators in a proclamation on December 12, 2002.

I would like to take this opportunity to commend you for your hard work and efforts," said Assembly Speaker Albio Sires. "During times of disaster, your group has displayed superior service and dedication to the safety of our citizens. I applaud the efforts of the independent radio operators and thank you for your selfless actions on September 12, 2001. Allow me to express my sincere gratitude for your participation with the New Jersey General Assembly on this day, December 12, 2002.[18])

参考资料:

http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/attack/wtc1.html
http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/attack/wtc2.html
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/09/september11.usa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_and_recovery_effort_after_the_September_11_attacks

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